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Panolong/ beam end

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Language Group


Artist Collective

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Geographical Setting

Lanao del Sur



Making Classification

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Making Sub Classification

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Anthropological Class

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Museological Class

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Museological Sub Class

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polychrome paint chipping off, poor condition; has signs of wood disintegration




48.00 x 31.80 x cm

Artist Statement

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Casino, Eric S. " Ats & Peoples of the Southern Philippines." (In Casal, et.al The People & Art of the Philippines. Los Angeles: University of California, 1981), pp. 171-172


Panolong is the term used for the flange—extension of a beam of the torogan, the large house of wealthy Maranao families— that flares out into more or less a wooden triangle. The entirety of the two surfaces of the triangle is filled with relief in the style called okir by the Maranao. (The Tausug variant is ukkil.) Okir is a formal aesthetic tradition of relief carving, featuring continuous curvilinear lines that are as though a relay of waves of equal dimension. Maranao okir virtuosos have a sharp eye for line and form. It is the rare hand and mind who can execute relief carving without losing elegance in all parts of a complicated whole. Often, in the most elegant of panolong, a serpent like figure features centrally. This is the naga to the Maranao, derived from its Sanskrit equivalent. This South Asian mythic figure is absorbed into island Southeast Asian mythology, where it conflates with mysterious reptiles like the crocodile and the snake.


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